WHAT IS ACTIVITY,ITS TYPES,EXAMLPES AND PRACTICES
A WORK AND PRESENTATION BY VIJAY KUMAR HEER
MEMBER,STATE RESOURCE GROUP , SARV SHIKSHA ABHIYAN (H.P.)
(FIELD TRIAL DONE AND ALL THE ACTIVITIES PERFORMED IN SEMINARS BY ME)
WHAT IS ACTIVITY?
Encyclopedia Britannica says:-
ac•tiv•i•ty \ak-‘ti-və-tē\ n, pl -ties (1530)
1 : the quality or state of being active
2 : vigorous or energetic action : liveliness
3 : natural or normal function: as a : a process (as digestion) that an organism carries on or participates in by virtue of being alive b : a similar process actually or potentially involving mental function ; specif: an educational procedure designed to stimulate learning by firsthand experience
4 : an active force
5 a : a pursuit in which a person is active b : a form of organized, supervised, often extracurricular recreation
6 : an organizational unit for performing a specific function ; also: its function or duties
In ordinary view, activity may be defined an organized effort to ensure the maximum learning in the classroom when we are teaching any subject. Activity suggests that the learners are having active attention, concentration, participation and enthusiasm during the learning process. We must know the way we are supposed to associate the present topic with the schema of the students.
In pedagogy, we must be aware that any teaching strategy which involves the whole class in such an active manner that they are thinking over the issues and problems, solving the brainstorming questions/puzzles/challenge/numerical/problem etc. Hence, at the primary level, we need to concentrate on the development of habit of active inquiry and participation.
If there is no need to add or think over the activity presented, it cannot be called as an activity. Activity may include a chain of many minor or sub-activities which are carried through the whole process to prepare our mind for thinking and finding solution by its own efforts.
STEPS TO USE THE ACTIVITY- A PEDAGOGICAL VIEW
E. R. A. C. is the key to perform the activities with organized manner of planning. We must know all these steps in detail:-
E-Experience:- In activity based teaching, experience term symbolizes a new experience or a new challenge, new environment, preparing to get attached with the further topic or situation but obtaining it in a deep attachment with the surrounding environment and objectives of the topic.
R- Reflection:- It means thinking over the problem and reflecting the views of the students who are thinking over the challenge produced by a new experience. Experience reaches more deep in this step and thinking is enhanced by a series of sharp questions over the challenge.
A-Application:- Application symbolizes the part in which the students learn by doing and sharing their views with the whole group. Teacher is supposed to be an observer here who directs the students to right path by adding some useful tips but not by imposing any conclusion. The students must be given an opportunity to accept the new terms after keen scrutiny with their own wisdom.
Consolidation:- The final step of the activity based teaching is consolidation or making any conclusion. It symbolizes that the student has reached to the objective for which the activity was designed and organized with clear indication that the aims of the curriculum are also fulfilled under this step. If students are not yet reaching to the conclusion, it is the responsibility of the teacher to assist them.
TYPE OF THE ACTIVITIES
On the basis of the sitting plan, these are some types of activities:-
INTERCLASS ACTIVITIES- In such activities, two or more classes are allowed to sit together.
INTRACLASS ACTIVITIES- such activities, students of particular class are allowed to sit together.
EXTRAMURAL ACTIVITIES/ENVIRONMENTAL ACTIVITIES:- I such activities, two or more groups of the students are given opportunity to go outside the class and learn the topic in environment with an organized activity designed by the teacher for the said purpose.
MAIN TYPES OF THE ACTIVITIES
1. Oral Activities.
2. Written Activities
3. Material Based Activities.
1. ORAL ACTVITIES:- In such activities, learner has to listen and speak much and get prepared for the activity designed to achieve the specific objective. At primary level, teacher has to make best efforts to have small and effective conversation with the students who often do not listen much. In such activities, students of different level may be engaged and these activities are often useful for the big group. Basically, the aim of oral activities is to ensure the friendly environment in the classroom and create a spirit of group work among the students. Skill of making good questions is the key to reach the desired objective. What,Why and How are the keys to develop good questions.
Illustration: Poem /Rhyme, Story Telling, theme or title finding, discussion etc.
2. Written Activities:- These activities focus mainly on the written skill development and such activities target also to achieve the desired objectives. These are somehow lengthy than the oral activities but these are very useful to develop the ability to write what you think. Children learn a lot by working in groups. One must be careful that the thinking is the key to reveal the best expressions.
In term of language development, we must not forget that firstly we feel something in our heart and mind on any incident/topic/problem/issue and then think over it. After organizing our views and feeling in sentences/words, we express them in written or oral /gestures form etc. It is the key to make a clear fundamental expression in any form.
It is sad to see that the essays, letters and paragraphs are often the expression of a single person and all students cram that “masterpiece”. It kills the creativity of the children and we are called hunters at the end.
In written activities, main skill is the key to make clear instructions which should must have easy language.
Illustrations: Development of a paragraph or story on the basis of an object or words, completing the story and picture description etc.
3. Material Based Activities:- Such activities may be done with help of Teaching Learning Materials(Charts, Models, Videos, Audios ,Paper etc.),environment objects as stones, matchsticks, seeds, covers, clippings , paper balls, marbles etc. Planning is the key in such activities as every student must be given material and the opportunity to use that material. Hence, we need to organize the class in small groups and ensure that the students are learning by doing. If students are making some toys with clay, shaping the objects to geometrical shapes- they are using the sense organs in such a manner that this learning is very stable in nature. Good examples help the students to make sure that such works are possible and they can do it without any problem.
The material must be easily available and it must be cheap. It must not be a costly affair as the teachers and students at primary level cannot afford such activities( if they are from the weaker economic sections of the society). We must use our wisdom in the selection of the material. Dictionary, old newspapers, map, globe, atlas, calendar, classroom and home objects, environmental objects often are used to run many such activities. Hence, we can teach every subject and topic with their help.
Remember, textbooks and library books are the best possible resources.
Key: Activity is the produced by the mind, not by the material.
EXAMPLES OF SOME ACTIVITIES WHICH CAN BE USED AT PRIMARY /ELEMENTARY LEVEL TEACHING AND TRAINING
NOTE: All the activities mentioned belong to various resource persons who have performed them at various level. Try to make multi use of the activities mentioned here by using them in inter-subject teaching.
ACTIVITY NO. 1:- BAPU(FATHER) SAYS
It is an activity to make the learners attentive to listen you. The teacher instructs to the children that they must do the action said by the Bapu(Father) and not to do the action if spoken by himself/herself. Bapu (Father) says line is attached with every possible line but suddenly a line is spoken without attaching the words- Bapu(Father) says. Those who perform the action on this occasion laugh and enjoy. Then they try to listen carefully.
ACTIVITY NO. 2:- WORD CHAIN (Shabd Antakshari) , Number Chain(Ankakshari)
In language subjects as English and Hindi, word chain is used to enhance the vocabulary of the students. A word is spoken by the teacher or any student and its last letter is used to start the next word.
In Number Chain , the last digit of one’s place is used to create the next number.
e.g. 123-342-291-147-716-617-766-698-893-395-567-789-987-754-453-345-544 etc.
Some precautions:- The activity must be designed with clear instructions like the problem of occurring of such words which cannot be used at the beginning of the next word( particular the nasal sounds in Hindi), the word which will be used instead of such word should must be made clear. Such list of the substitutes must be displayed before starting this game.
During the number chain, many digits ending with zero at one’s place create confusion. Hence, we should set the instruction that if anyone provides such number in number chain e.g. 414-420, then Ten’s place will be used to continue the chain as 414-420-215 etc. If the digit comes as 500, the Thousand’s place will be used to carry forward the number chain.
This activity is the key of learning. It can be designed in several ways. May methods are applied with it as use of the pictures in the word chain or object based word chain, word chain on three letter based words as she-egg-get-ten-net-tea-ant-tie-ear-run-nun-nut-tin-not etc. After such practice it may be used for four letter or five letter words.
Then the word chain may be shifted towards EVS. The word chain may be used to carry the name of various names of fruits, vegetables, birds, animals, environment animals, environment objects etc. but the limitations must be set in the instructions, otherwise it will cause the failure.
The number chain may also be enhanced upto crore/million place values. The activity of number chain may also be set in such a manner that the learner has to answer only even or odd number. It is very useful as person indicates the understanding in such a manner that he/she reflects only the even or odd numbers in their answers.
ACTIVITY NUMBER 3:- ROLE PLAY IN A STORY:-
The narrator tells a story and highlights the roles of various groups who will either stand/sit/clap/laugh/make any gesture/action on the occurrence of any particular word(as thief/police/traveler/king/queen/any noun/pronoun/articles/other words) . Hence, they listen carefully and pay the full attention towards what has been spoken by the teacher/trainer. Role play also involves active characterization and role playing by the various students to dramatize any story.
ACTIVITY NUMBER 4:- IF I WOULD HAVE BECOME ………….., I COULD HAVE DONE ……………
In this activity, free expression of individual views is applied. A persons says that if he would have become any professional as doctor, teacher ,engineer ,politician ,IAS, businessman etc., I could have done these works. It may be applied in written as well as oral too. Both applications develop the sense of understanding towards various occupations and language usage in such paragraph writing/making task.
ACTIVITY NO. 5:- ATLAS PLAY
In this activity, students are given a chance to write /tell the name of the various places in such a manner that they reach the particular venue from a particular place .In this game, we are supposed to play with clear instructions as
(A)START FROM DELHI- REACH TAMILNADU(TELL THE NAME OF AT LEAST SIX STATES WHICH WILL YOU CROSS)
(B) COMPLETE THE ROUTE CHAIN WITH WORD CHAIN
(C) STATE PLACES CHAIN
(D) CAPITALS OF VARIOUS STATE OF INDIA – A WORD CHAIN
(E) COUNTRIES OF THE WORLS- A WORD CHAIN
Hence, the students pay much attention on the topics which are discussed and heed towards the name of the various places.
ACTIVITY NO. 6:- MAKE A STORY
The teacher says a particular line which is enough to think the starting of the story and the students are asked to narrate the further lines with their own imagination and creativity. This method helps in the development of the various steps of story making and shaking the schema of the students.
ENDLESS STORY may also be created by providing many opportunities to the same person.
Method of standing any particular student/trainee must not be pedantic like YOU STAND,HEY I AM SPEAKING TO YOU but it must be a new one as stand the student having name with V alphabet or make a ball of any paper and throw it on a student who will speak after you. Then the student who added an extra line in the story throws the ball towards any other colleague in the classroom. Hence, all students are active and they participate their level best.
ACTIVITY NO. 7- HOW TO TEACH NOUN IN LANGUAGE
In this particular strategy, we can understand that how a student learns the topic with more vision and accuracy.
Go to your class and ask the learners to write the names of the places of their area (may be name of any village/street/habitation/tehsil/block/district/state/UT/Nation/Continent/Countries/ Islands etc.) within three minutes with maximum speed. The winner will be the person who has written the maximum names.
Ensure that all the persons tell their relevant scores and write the score board of top five persons who have written many.
Now, repeat the same style for enabling them to write the name of the persons they know( persons belonging to family, family members, friends, teachers, students, colleagues, children, relatives etc.)
When the second step is complete, ask them to write the names of various objects of the environment/hall/classroom etc.
Now, all three steps are complete and scores are there. Ask the learners to write some words which refer to quality ,state ,entity( words which can be replaced with pronoun). You ask them to write such six to ten words.
Now ask the top scorers to present what they have written and all others point out what is wrong. After this presentation, all persons sit and they are asked to review what they have learnt- NOUN. And all of us know that
noun \’naụn\ n [ME nowne, fr. AF nom, noun name, noun, fr. L nomen — more at name] (14c) : any member of a class of words that typically can be combined with determiners to serve as the subject of a verb, can be interpreted as singular or plural, can be replaced with a pronoun, and refer to an entity, quality, state, action, or concept
ACTIVITY NO. 8:- FLY MY DEAR,FLY
Children are asked to be prepared for this activity as it involves their concept understanding.
They are asked to stretch their arms like a flying bird when you will speak the name of any particular bird/animal/even number /odd number/ living/Non- living/solid/liquid/gas/soluble/Insoluble/Noun words/Pronoun/any other object. If they fly on the wrong one, all others laugh and the student try to improve his//her performance in the game.
Example:- Fly on the name of living beings
Zebra- Fly, Horse-Fly, Man-Fly, Butterfly- Fly, Stone – ………. The learner who will fly will get the idea that stone is non-living object and I did the mistake by flying on its name.
ACTIVITY NO. 9 :- INTRODUCTION GAME:-
We must change the style of taking or giving the introduction session. It may be managed alphabetically, by the date of birth, by month of birth, by hobbies or habits, taking numerically as multiple of 4 will speak firstly.
With such styles, we must ask the sharp questions in introduction as if you have born in month June, tell us the name of some important days or festivals /name of some great persons born in June etc. The answers must reach to a conclusion and provide a new direction to the learner.
ACTIVITY NO. 10: SUDOKU/ SQUARE METRICS
We are supposed to design a particular square metrics for the specific purpose. It is very easy to prepare when you are teaching any subject. It can be filled with numbers / alphabets which will be used for making the new words, name of vegetables, fruits, places ,animals ,birds , making numbers of any particular place value etc. But it must be simple and the users must get the clear instructions if they are supposed to find the particular terms by rounding in square metrics or is it the necessary to think and write on the basis of the given square metrics.
ACTIVITY NO. 11 :- CUT THE NUMBER
In maths, this activity is used as one must write many numbers( from 1 to 100) in the square metrics. Then you ask them to cut the number having zero at the one’s place. Then ask them to cut the numbers divisible by 7 or 3. Then ask them to cut the indivisible numbers. Then ask them to cut the even numbers and now cut the odd numbers. Hence, all numbers are cut off and the students are busy in arithmetic.
ACTIVITY NO. 12:- PICTURE COMPOSITION/DESCRIPTION
A particularly selected picture is shown to all the students and they are given the time to deeply analyse the picture. They are asked to note down every small point too. Then the are asked to compose a paragraph/ story/poem from the information they have acquired with this picture. Village /City maps are also given in such activities to ensure that students find their location in the concerned area.
ACTIVITY NO. 13: WORDS TO MAKE A STORY
Students are given the challenge of some new words and hence, they are supposed to make a written or oral story by using these words. The usage of these words must be done in such a manner that the focus must be on the good moral end of the story than on the promotion of bad values/evils.
ACTIVITY NO. 14:- PRAPARING THE LIST OF SOME LOCAL GAMES
Prepare the list of the some local games which are played in your area. Then write /discuss the process of those games. Then try to know how they can be associated with learning like hopscotch with geometry and numbering, caramboard with scoring/ addition, race of 100 metres with concept of distance etc. Rest of the work depends on the games chosen by you but strategy is clear that playing may be associated with joyful learning.
ACTIVITY NUMBER 15:- SYNTHESIZE THE TORN WORDS/PICTURE
A picture( of any animal , bird, vegetable, parts of body, place, person etc.) or any word (prefer the CAPITAL LETTERS used on the font size 100-250 by asking everyone to write any word having five letters on the half page ). Then collect all pages and mix them . Now tear any paper out of the collected papers and ask any person to associate it. Every member is assigned a work of synthesizing the torn paper pieces and framing the particular picture/word. If they do, appreciate them.
ACTIVITY NUMBER 16:- ROLLING STICK ON SQUARE METRICS
In this method, kids are asked to come and play on the ground where the teacher has already made a big square metrics having many numbers 1 to 100. The rolling stick is thrown which falls in any two columns of this square metrics due to its length equal to twice of the column of that square metrics. In first step, they add the numbers of the two columns and get the score. Then in second step, they use the method to subtract the smaller number from the bigger one. In the third step, they multiply. In last step, they divide the bigger number with smaller one. Hence, this activity involves the usage of all basic mathematical operations at primary level.
ACTTIVITY NUMBER 17:- MAGIC WITH NUMBERS (1-100)
All students are asked to suppose any number ( 1-100) in their mind and write in their notebooks. Now multiply that number with two. You got a new number in result. Now add 8 in the result. After adding the said number, divide the number with 4. Get the result. Now you are ready. Rewrite the number you had supposed and divide that by 2. After getting the result of the number divided by 4, subtract the number divided by 2. Answer must be 2. See the example:-
24× 2= 48+8=56÷4= 14 Now 24÷2= 12 After it 14-12= 2.
Such magic tricks help the children to enjoy the mathematics and they are amazed too.
ACTIVITY NO. 18:- LET’S MAKE TABLES
When the kids learn counting 1 to 100 and have got the concept of addition, they can be given a new style of work for making tables of maths. For it, write the numbers from 1 to 10. Tell the kids that it is the table of 1. Now add counting 1 to 10 in this table. It will make 1+1=2, 2=2=4…………10+10= 20 which is called the table of 2. Then add the counting in the table of two which will make the table of three. Practice the making of tables in this manner makes clear that multiplication is the shortest form of adding same number many times.
ACIVITY NO. 19:- FIND THE DOTS CREATED
Just ask the students to learn a new method if they are forgetting any table in multiplication. The method is unique and simple . Suppose, one has to multiply these numbers 4×3= ? Insert four horizontal lines and three vertical lines on them. They shall intersect over 12 points(dots). Let the students count the dots where these lines have intersected. The answer is 4×3= 12.
ACTIVITY NO. 20:- FIND THE OBJECTS OF THAT SHAPE
In this activity , students are asked to tell the names of various environmental / classroom objects having resemblance/similar shape with the shown shape( round/rectangular/square/cylinder/cone etc.).Just prepare the list as reflected by students. Then apply that shape on the objects having similar shape.
ACTIVITY NO. 21:- CHAIN OF THE ALPHABETS TO ACTIVITY
ALPHABET- MEAN OF TRANSPORT……A CITY…. ANIMAL…… BIRD A- AEROPLANE ….. AMERICA….. ANTS/APE…..AUKS/ABABEEL B- BUS….. BEIJING….. BEAR/BOAS…..BULBULS/BATS/BARBET C- CAR….. CANADA….. CAT/COW/CROCODILE….. CRANES/CUCKOO D- DONKEY….. DUBAI….. DOLPHIN/DOG…..DUCKS/DOVE/DRONGO E- ELEPHANT….. ENGLAND….. ELEPHANT/EEL…..EMU/EAGLE F-FORD CAR/FISHER’S BOAT….. FRANCE…..FISH/FROG…..FLYCATCHER G- GLIDE….. GERMANY …..GOAT/GORILLA…..GULLS/GANNETS H- HELICOPTER….. HAVANA…..HIPPO/HORSE…..HORNBILL/HAWKS I- INDIGO CAR….. INDIA….. INSECT/IBISES….. IORA/IBISES J- JET….. JAPAN….. JAGUARS…..JAYS/ JACKDAWS K- KINETIC SCOOTY….. KOREA…..KANGAROO/KOALAS…..KIWI/KOEL L- LIMO….. LONDON….. LION/LIZARD…..LAPWING/LYRE M- MOTORCYCLE/METRO….. MOSCOW….. MONKEY/MAGPY…..MYNA N- NAVAL SHIP/NANO CAR….. NEPAL…..NEWTS ….. NIGHTJARS O- OXCART….. OMAN….. OX….. OWL/OSTRICH/OSPREY P- PLANE….. PERU…..PANDA/PIG/PYTHONS….. PENGUINE/PARROT Q- QUALIS CAR….. QUATAR…..QUAIL/QUELEAS…..QUAIL R- RIKSHAW….. RUSSIA….. RHINO/RABBIT/RAT….. ROBIN/REDSTART S-SCOOTER/SHIP.SPAINSNAKE/SHARKS/SPIDER….SPARROW/ SKUAS
T-TRUCK/TRAIN/TRACTORTURKEY..TIGER/TORTOISE..TIT/TAILORBIRD U- UTILITY CAR….. UGANDA…..UNICORN…..UKAB V- VAN….. VIETNAM …..VULTURE/VAMPIRE BATS…..VULTURE W- WAGON…..WARSAW….. WALRUS/WHALE/WOODLICE…..WAGTAIL X- X-10 BIKE…..XANADU…..FOX ….. WAXBILL Y- YATCH….. YAMAN…..YAK…..YELLOW CROWNED WOODPECKER Z- ZEN CAR….. ZAMBIA….. ZEBRA/ZOOIDS…..ZITTING CISTICOLA
THE SERIES IS UNDER INNOVATIVE PRACTICE ON ENGLISH ALPHABETS BY VIJAY KUMAR HEER.YOU MAY SEE IT ON MY WEBSITES TOO.
NOTE: “X” IS DENOTED INDIRECTLY DUE TO LACK OF THE NAMES AVAILABLE. THE PRESENTATION IS ONLY INDICATIVE.
ACTIVITY NO. 22:- CREATE THE THUMB IMPRESSION BIRDS/ANIMALS
All animals have the thumb type stomach . hence, the thumb impressions are made on the white paper and fingers are used to create the impression of head and feet /jaws by stamping. Many animals can be prepared with this technique( as butterfly. Dragonfly, bee, marigold, dog, cat etc. )
ACTIVITY NO. 23:- MISMATCHING SHAPE OF ANIMALS- UNIQUE WORK
In this activity , three groups are made and each group works on the drawing the shape of an animal’s/bird’s head, stomach and legs. When they prepare, collect the drawings. Now join the shapes made. A unique animal or bird will be created by this association. It is interesting to find that whose head, whose legs and whose stomach is here in this picture. It develops the synthesis ability of students.
ACTIVITY NO. 24:- Find the names of some birds, animals, leaves, flowers, trees or the other environmental objects which resemble with the shape of numbers 1 to 9 . example 1 may resemble with pen, tube etc. 2 may resemble with duck or the person sitting in meditation, 3 may resemble with leave of a peepal tree, 4 may resemble with human nose or a person in Yoga, 5 may resemble with jaws of a roaring lion, 6 may resemble with trunk of an elephant, 7 may resemble with leg of a chair or the head to neck portion of a giraffe, 8 may resemble with shape of a butterfly, bee or insects/ants, 9 may resemble with shape of an ammonite or an attacking buffalo.
Such list may be prepared and the photos may be collected. Then the portion having resemblance with any number may be highlighted.
ACTIVITY NO. 25:- MONOACTING
Guess my gestures, name that gesture in the form of an action word. Such theme may be used during any monoacting .
ACTIVITY NO. 26:- Alphabets from A to Z are written with their value as 1 to 26 ascendingly. Then the students are asked to make a word having value 35 to 40 and a sentence having value 120 to 130. Such practice may associate maths with English.
ACTIVITY NO. 27: YOUR MEMORABLE MOMENTS
Ask the students to share their best and worst moments of life with the class. The happiest and saddest moments must be shared for better understanding.
ACTIVITY NO. 28:- COLLECT THE DRY LEAVES
Ask the students to collect the various dry leaves and use them to make the shape of any animal or bird etc. It becomes a game. Then ask them the name of the leaves which have been associated in the picture. Assist the students in their mother tongue when you want to ask the name of the trees or plants whose dry leaves have been collected by them. It develops their sense of understanding.
ACTIVITY NO. 29:- NUMBERING OF THE NOTEBOOK
Just instruct all the students to start the numbering of their notebooks. Write the page numbers. When they finish , ask then to take out page no. 22 and tear it into equal 40 parts . Then ask them to tear the page no. 26 and make a square from it. Now ask then to circle the numbers written which are indivisible. Then many such actions can be performed. It will help the students to learn rapidly.
ACTIVITY NO. 30: MAKE A STORY ON THE PROVERBS/PHRASES/IDIOMS
It is very simple activity. We are supposed to have a list of some idioms and phrases. Then ask the students to learn its meaning by constructing a story with similar themes but repeated use of such proverbs, idioms and phrases.
Many activities such as making the pairing words as table-chair, copy-pencil etc. may also be prepared by giving this challenge to make maximum pairs in three minutes. Many other poems and rhymes may be created according to the need of the topic. Guess the path in jungle, Old Lady’s House to various wild animals home path activity where one has to choose the right option without intersecting of path is useful for geographical knowledge development. Beyond them, many dots can be used to create shapes of geometry, animals , birds etc. Of course, many other activities may also be suggested by me but I can tell you how to think, not what to think.
Thanking with regards,
Date:17-07-2011 Yours sincerely,
Vijay Kumar Heer, State President
Himachal Shikshak Kranti Manch,
MEMBER;S.R.G. (S.S.A.) , H.P.
V.P.O. CHAKMOH,TEHSIL BARSAR
Distt. Hamirpur (HP) 176039